Evaporators are often used in ultra-high vacuum experiments, especially in surface science. The design of the evaporator depends on the material to be evaporated. In simple cases, like the one shown below, the material can just be put into a folded tantalum envelope with a hole and this entire envelope is heated by passing a current through it.


More sophisticated evaporators allow even refractory materials to be evaporated. These often work by electron-beam heating, are equipped with a thermal (water-cooled) shield and even allow to measure the evaporation flux.


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